Lecture Capture Tools y una nueva forma de entender la modalidad (semi)presencial

Hace un par de semanas una profesora y directora de un servicio de mi vicerrectorado me comentó que había visto utilizar software de grabación de clases magistrales (traducción que me acabo de inventar para Lecture Capture Tools) durante una estancia en una universidad australiana. Yo le dije que era muy escéptico con la grabación de ponencias, charlas o cualquier tipo de exposición oral que supere cierto minutaje, porque verlas en diferido suele ser bastante aburrido, pero que, efectivamente, había leído un informe sobre uso de herramientas en las universidades británicas en el que se hablaba de una creciente demanda de este tipo de servicio. Ella insistió en que en otro modelo de organización de las asignaturas, donde la presencia del estudiante es requerida cuando es realmente imprescindible, al contrario que en nuestra universidad boloñesa que impone pasar lista para controlar la asistencia de los estudiantes, este tipo de herramienta tenía su sentido. En dicho modelo, la difusión de las grabaciones de las clases magistrales ofrece flexibilidad a los estudiantes, cuya dedicación regular ya está pautada por las diversas actividades realizadas a lo largo del periodo en que se imparte la asignatura. De forma muy especial, cuando se busca ampliar la clientela de la universidad con estudiantes que residen en otros países, como al parecer ocurre en Australia y su proyección hacia Oceanía. Así que me lleve una guía realizada por la Macquarie University que la profesora había recogido (y que después he encontrado en formato PDF) y decidí darle una vuelta a este asunto.

Un pequeño repaso superficial en la web muestra que se está desarrollando una nueva categoría de herramientas específicas para la docencia presencial (ver  por ejemplo la página de Echo360). Las explicaciones encontradas en los sitios Web de distintos productos en el apartado de las Lecture Capture Tools, como Echo360 o Panopto, insisten en la sencillez del proceso. El docente puede comenzar esta grabación desde su portátil o programarla previamente. El archivo resultante estará disponible en un área de archivos privada, desde donde puede publicarla, acompañada de las transparencias utilizadas durante la clase. en todos los casos se insiste en la sencillez del proceso, aunque sin ahondar mucho podemos imaginar, algunas contrapartidas: por ejemplo, aquellos que sean aficionados a pasearse entre las mesas de los estudiantes se pasarían bastante rato fuera de marco.

Captura Vídeo Demostración Panopto

Captura realizada sobre un vídeo disponible en el sitio web de Panopto.


En la citada guía tiene como argumento central que la difusión sistematizada de las clases magistrales no equivale a tener las aulas vacías puesto (o mientras) que la asistencia a las mismas tiene (tenga) beneficios para los estudiantes. Además, estas grabaciones no tienen únicamente como destinatarios a aquellos que no asisten, también serán de utilidad como material de repaso y consulta, especialmente en aquellos fragmentos donde se exponen conceptos complicados. Sin embargo, desde el momento en que se abre esta posibilidad, el diseño de la clase debe contar con todas las posibilidades: los estudiantes que asisten regularmente, los que lo hacen ocasionalmente y los que no vienen nunca. Así, se deben prever los elementos de soporte y de comunicación necesarios para los tres colectivos.  Por lo tanto:

  • deben identificarse los momentos en el desarrollo de una asignatura en el que la presencialidad es imprescindible

  • las clases expositivas grabadas están integradas en un entorno virtual de aprendizaje que da soporte a las necesidades de comunicación y de colaboración

  • las clases expositivas grabadas se relacionan con actividades y tareas programadas a continuación

Las clases magistrales que se difunden a través de este canal deben ser consideradas como parte de un conjunto, que conforma el curriculum, donde se encuentran los contenidos o temario, las actividades de los estudiantes y de los docentes (las clases, seminarios… programados por los docentes así como el trabajo de los estudiantes en grupo o de forma individual) y la evaluación, con su correspondiente feedback. Desde esta perspectiva hay que tener en cuenta que este modelo “semi-blended” de difusión de las clases no será adecuado en determinadas ocasiones. Por ejemplo, si la presencia física, la posibilidad de establecer contactos… es un elemento esencial en el diseño instruccional, si el contenido es confidencial o sensible, incluye aspectos polémicos que hagan aconsejable la intervención directa de un moderador, si los contenidos puedan ser susceptibles de copyright, si se incluyen contenidos multimedia difíciles de integrar en la grabación…

Su utilización se circunscribe por lo tanto a un esquema de comunicación unidireccional, con escasas licencias para implicar a los estudiantes que están viendo la grabación en los debates que puedan producirse. Algunas ideas serían crear un foro online, o repetir de forma sistemática las preguntas de los estudiantes.

Los datos reflejados en Survey of Technology Enhanced Learning for higher education in the UK (Walker, Voce & Jebar, 2012) muestran que estas herramientas también tienen su presencia en UK. El 50% de las universidades británicas ofrece este servicio de forma institucional. Además, en un 18% de casos estas herramientas se usan a pesar de que los servicios informáticos centrales no les dan soporte, probablemente porque algún departamento o algún proyecto las haya adquirido por su cuenta. Por otra parte, a Lecture Capture Tools aparece en tercer lugar en la lista de las herramientas más demandadas por los docentes a los servicios informáticos de las universidades, una posición que ya ocupaban cuando se realizó este mismo estudio en 2010. También me parece interesante señalar que sólo en un 32% de los casos no hay una integración clara con el gestor de aulas virtuales de la universidad.

Tabla sobre uso de herramientas (UCISA)

Tabla tomada de Walker, Voce & Jebar (2012)

 

No puedo concluir este repaso sin establecer una comparación con el sistema de grabación polimedia (combinación en directo de distintas fuentes utilizando un control de realización como por ejemplo los de la marca Tricaster), usados habitualmente para realizar pequeñas “pildoras” de contenido en vídeo. En las descripciones de los productos que he podido consultar no he visto ninguna mención a la sincronización del discurso del docente y de las transparencias utilizadas, la función básica del polimedia. Dado que todo el proceso de grabación de las Lecture Capture Tools se realiza desde remoto, esto puede ser más complejo. Sin embargo, sincronizar voz y datos (transparencia) puede ser de interés para facilitar el uso de estos vídeos como material de consulta y referencia. Por ejemplo, Panopto apunta la posibilidad de que se pueden hacer búsquedas de fragmentos en base a las ocurrencias de texto en las presentaciones, no sé cómo lo harán. Es un sistema similar al utilizado en este otro proyecto comentado en un post anterior, donde se basaban en los subtítulos de los vídeos.

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